YEMEN 2020-2022

Cultural heritage of Yemen, people’s identity at risk. Documentation of Endangered Architectural Heritage of Yemen

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Since March 2015, the ongoing conflict in Yemen has resulted in unimaginable suffering for the people and the devastation of the country’s infrastructure and cultural heritage. Yemen’s cultural heritage is among the most highly affected sectors of the Yemeni scenario, due to the vulnerable and fragile nature of historical monuments and their connected communities as well. Islamic monuments are regarded as the most endangered monuments and they are in need of urgent damage assessment and documentation. A large number of South Arabian archaeological sites have also been severely damaged and many of these could be lost forever. As Yemen’s cultural heritage has been heavily targeted during these years of war, and the people of Yemen itself is now seeing its own identity at risk, there is, therefore, an urgent need to assess the condition and later restore and promote such cultural richness due to its deep connection to the National identity of the most ancient civilization in the Arabian Peninsula. It will take several years to fully document all the monuments that have been affected by the conflict. As a first step, thanks to a prodigal and forward-looking funding from the Aliph Foundation (International alliance for the protection of heritage in conflict areas), a project is starting, aiming at responding to the urgent needs of Yemeni institutions such as the Social Fund for Development (SFD), the General Organization for the Preservation of the Historical Cities of Yemen (GOPHCY) and the General Organization of Antiquities and Museums (GOAM), that have been drafting a first target list of monuments in danger. Importantly, this formalized assessment methodology would also provide the basis for planning the future restoration/reconstruction of Yemen’s National properties. The main objective of the project is to enable Yemeni experts to complete a full survey on the state of conservation of a number of Islamic monuments that have been severely damaged, in order to provide a standard assessment tool for future sites and provide the basis for prioritizing and planning recovery and conservation efforts.

Funding Body

Yemen’s historical cities preserve unique examples of decorated high-rise earthen buildings, religious and military architecture, and Islamic urban planning. Their outstanding value has been recognized with the inscription on the World Heritage List. This unique heritage has been severely damaged by conflict, and more recently by extreme weather events related to climate change. To support the conservation and management of these important monuments, the Social Fund for Development (Yemen) and Monumenta Orientalia (Italy) conduct detailed architectural assessments of listed heritage buildings in Ṣaʿdah, Ṣanʿāʾ, Kawkabān, Dhamār, Mankath, Ibb, Radaʿa, Taʿizz, Zabīd, Aden, Shibam, Tarīm.

The MO Project is implemented in close partnership with the Social Fund for Development (SFD), the General Organisation of Antiquities and Museums (GOAM) and the General Organisation for the Preservation of the Historic Cities of Yemen (GOPCHY), and in collaboration with Iconem (France). The Project People’s Identity at Risk. Documentation and assessment of Islamic monuments at risk (2020-2022) is funded by the Aliph Foundation (International alliance for the protection of heritage in conflict areas).

Download Documents

Click on the images below to download the English or Italian versions of R. Ravagnan and M. Merlo (eds), THE GREAT MOSQUE OF ṢAN‘Ā’ – Conservation intervention (2005-2015), Istituto Veneto per i Beni Culturali, Venezia, 2022 and the English version of R. Ravagnan and M. Merlo (eds), AL-ASHRAFIYYAH MOSQUE AND MADRASAH IN TA‘IZZ – Conservation intervention (2008-2015), Istituto Veneto per i Beni Culturali, Venezia, 2022.

IDPictureName (EN)Name (AR)GovernatorateDistrict or neighborhood
5‘Alī Wald Zāyid Mosque – Mankath – Yarīm – Ibb مسجد علي ولد زايد- منكث- يريم- إ بIbbYarim
1Ṭalḥah Dome – Old Ṣan‘ā’ قبة طلحة- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
2Marna’ Ṭalḥah (Well ramp) – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مرنع طلحة- صنعاء القدیمةSana'a Old City
8Al-Bakīriyyah Dome – Old Ṣan‘ā’ قبة البكيرية- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
12Al-Mahdī ‘Abbās Dome and Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ قبة ومسجد المهدي عباس- صنعاء القديمةSana'a Old City
13Marna’ Al-Mahdī ‘Abbās (Well ramp) – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مرنع المھدي عباس- صنعاء القدیمةSana'a Old City
27Ibn Al-Ḥusayn Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد ابن الحسين- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
28Al-Murādiyyah Madrasah – Old Ṣana‘ā’ قبة المرادية- صنعاء القديم ةSana'aOld City
29Al-Jamāliyyah Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الجمالية - صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
30Maḥmūd Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد محمود - صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
35Al-Abhar Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الأبهر - صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
36Al-Abzar Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الأبزر- صنعاء القديمةSana'a Old City
38Mūsā Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد موسى - صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
39Al-Madhhab Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ جامع المذهب- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
40Nusayr Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد نصير- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
41Al-‘Alamī Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد العلمي- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
42Al-Sharīfah Dome – Old Ṣan‘ā’ قبة الشريفة - صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
43Al-Fulayḥī Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الفليحي- صنعاء القديمةSana'a Old City
44Al-Jalā’ Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الجلاء - صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
45Dā’ūd Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد داؤود صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
46Khuḍayr Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد خضير-صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
47‘Aqīl Mosque – Old Ṣana‘ā’ مسجد عقيل- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
49Al-Washalī Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الوشلي- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
50Al-Kharrāz Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الخراز- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
53Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد صلاح الدين- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
55Al-Ṭawāshī Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الطواشي - صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
56Al-Madrasah Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد المدرسة- صنعاء القديمةSana'a Old City
57Mu‘ādh Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد معاذ- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
58Al-Dār Al-Jadīd Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الدار الجديد- صنعاء القديم ةSana'a Old City
34Farwah ibn Musayk Mosque – Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد فروة- صنعاءSana'aShu'ub
48Al-Balqah Mosque – Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد البلقة- صنعاءSana'a At Tahrir
51Al-Hādī Mosque – Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الهادي - صنعا ءSana'aAt Tahrir
52Al-Mutawakkil Dome – Old Ṣan‘ā’ قية المتوكل - صنعاء القديمةSana'a At Tahrir
54Al-Ṣayyād Mosque – Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الصياد- صنعاءSana'aAt Tahrir
59Al-Raḥmah Mosque – Ṣan‘ā’ مسجد الرحمة- صنعاءSana'a At Tahrir
37Ḥamzah Mosque – Al-Rawḍah مسجد حمزة - الروض ةSana'a Bani Al Harith
60Al-Rawḍ Mosque – Hamdān – Ṣan‘ā’ همدان -الروض مسجدSana'a Bani Al Harith
15Al-‘Āmiriyyah Mosque and Madrasah – Radā‘ – Al-Bayḍā’ مسجد ومدرسة العامرية- رداع- البيضا ءAl Bayda' Rada'
6Al-Manshūr Mosque – Ta‛izz مسجد المنشور- تع زTa'izzSabir Al Mawadim
21Al-Ḥusayniyyah Dome – Ta‛izz قبة الحسينية- تعزTa'izzAl Mudhaffar
22Al-Muẓaffar Mosque – Ta‛izz جامع المظفر- تع زTa'izzAl Qahirah
7Al-Janad Mosque – Ta‛izz جامع الجند- تعزTa'izzAt Ta'izziyah
23Al-Jāmi‘ al-Kabīr – Zabīd الجامع الكبير- زبيدAl HudaydahZabid
24Al-Bīshiyyah Mosque and Madrasah – Zabīd – Al-Ḥudaydah مسجد ومدرسةالبيشية- زبيد- الحديدةAl HudaydahZabid
25Al-Iskandariyyah Mosque and Madrasah – Zabīd – Al-Ḥudaydah مسجد ومدرسة الإسكندرية- زبيد- الحديدةAl HudaydahZabid
26Al-Jabartiyyah Mosque – Zabīd – Al-Ḥudaydah مسجد ومدرسة الجبرتية- زبيد- الحديدةAl HudaydahZabid
19Hārūn Al-Rashīd Mosque – Shibām – Ḥaḍramawt جامع هارون الرشيد- شبام- حضرمو تHadhramautShibam
20Bā-‘Alawī Mosque – Say’ūn – Ḥaḍramawt جامع باعلوي- سيئون- حضرمو تHadhramautSayun
18Al-Maḥḍār Mosque – Tarīm – Ḥaḍramawt جامع المحضار- تريم- حضرمو تHadhramautTarim
14Al-Hushaybarī Dome – ‘Ans – Dhamār - قبة الحشيبري- عنسDhamarMaghrib Ans
16Al-Shamsiyyah Mosque and Madrasah – Dhamār جامع ومدرسة الشمسية - ذما رDhamarDhamar City
11Al-‘Ābid Mosque – Old Ṣana‘ā’ مسجد العابد- صنعاءSana'aBani Hushaysh
33Al-Hijrah Mosque – Al-Ḥaymah مسجد الهجرة - الحيم ةSana'aBani Matar
3Al-Nizārī Mosque – Sa‘daمسجد النزاريSa'dahSa'dah
4Shaybān Mosque – Sa‘daجامع شيبان- صعدةSa'dahSa'dah
31Daghbis Mosque – Old Ṣan‘ā’ – Al-Ḥaymah al-Khārijiyyah مسجد دغبس- الحيمة الخارجي ةSana'aAl Haymah Al Kharijiyah
32Al-Masjid al-Qadīm – Bayt al-Ghawbar – Al-Ḥaymah المسجد القديم- بيت غوبر- الحيم ةSana'aAl Haymah Al Kharijiyah
9Shams Al-Dīn Dome – Kawkabān- Al-Maḥwīt قبة شمس الدين- كوكبان- المحوي تSana'aManakhah
17Al-‘Aydarūs Mosque – Aden جامع العيدروس- عد نAdenCrater - Sirah
10Qaydān Mosque – Al-Rujum – Al-Maḥwīt مسجد قيدان- الرجم- المحويتAl MahwitAr Rujum